Tod Browning

Charles Albert Browning Jr., a.k.a. Tod Browning, was born July 12, 1880, in Louisville Kentucky. Before he was 10, Browning was already yearning for more than working-class Louisville (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 20). He began his journey at 18 years of age when he dropped out of high school to join the circus in 1898. Browning spent the next 15 years working his way up from a roustabout, to spieler, to performer. Some of his acts included, being a contortionist, live burial, magicians assistant, and vaudeville acts. It is clear how this experience influenced his future film making style.

Browning worked in burlesque shows and in the theater for most of the early 20th century. He made a name for himself with acts like: “The Hypnotic Living Corpse” in a carnival river show, or his roles as “Silk Hat Harry” or “Sherlocko” in the burlesque act The Whirl of Mirth. His ability to act and put on a spectacle was clear from the onset of his career.

Germinating His Style

Browning had a distinct style and atmosphere to his films. They were generally darker in in terms of the subject matter, focusing on criminals, murderers, carnival, and sideshow characters. The leads were typically nefarious and the situations were atypical when compared to other Hollywood films of the time. David SKal and Elias Savada note in their book Dark Carnival, that to some, he was “an unassailable auteur of cinematic darkness; to others, he was a cynical hack, who mined the same thematic material over and over…” (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 6).

Browning’s style surrounding darker subject matter and carnival life was directly related to his upbringing and passion for the carnival life. He also found himself, on many occasions, dealing with disturbing situations. Situations that he remembered being horrific to witness yet sympathetic. Friend and colleague, Mary MacLaren, described one of these situations:

Browning was lodging at a hotel in a midwestern city – MacLaren vaguely recalled that it was Cleveland – when he found the door to his floor’s shared bathroom closed for an unusually long time. After knocking, and receiving no answer, he opened the door. His impatience turned to horror when he discovered that the occupant, a destitute mother at the end of her wits, had appropriated the bathroom to rid herself of her family.
“She had two little children,” MacLaren recalled Browning telling her. One was already lying dead on the floor… Browning told MacLaren he was “absolutely frozen.” The woman “was completely oblivious. She didn’t hear him knock; she had probably lost her mind then and there.” Browning said he was torn between feelings of horrific revulsion and compassion for the “poor soul, to think what she had been through, to force her to do such a terrible thing.” (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 33-34).

Transition to Film

Browning transitioned to film acting in 1913. An introduction from Charlie Murray to David Wark Griffith (D.W. Griffith), would change the course of Browning’s career. In 1913, D.W. Griffith hired Browning to Biograph Studios to act in Scenting a Terrible Crime. Shortly thereafter, Griffith left Biograph to join Reliance-Majestic Studios, a subsidiary called Komic Company. Browning would follow Griffith to Komic Company to continue making films, now comedies.

Edward Dillon & Directing

Many of his early short films were comedies as well as directed by Edward Dillon. Dillon directed at least 45 of the 52 films that Browning acted for in his career. Browning would make 2 one-reel films wit Biograph and 50 one-reel films for Komic Company.

In 1915, Browning transitioned from actor to director. He directed eleven one-reel films for Reliant-Majestic in a four month span. The streak of filmmaking would come to a halt in June of 1915.

The Fatal Drive Home

It was clear early on Browning’s career, and throughout, that he had a drinking problem. A problem that would sometimes manifest itself in his work and sometimes with fatal consequences. In June of 1915, Browning left a bar with some friends in the fog of of a Los Angeles night. Driving without a care, Browning cruised through the city until colliding with a flatbed truck. The collision caused serious injuries to himself and caused horrific injuries to his passenger and friend, Elmer Booth, who died on impact. The accident apparently left Elmer Booth unrecognizable and his funeral was a few days later.

Browning on the other hand, survived. However, it would take him the better part of a year to recover. Browning apparently did not discuss the accident in public and with his colleagues. On top of that, he did not openly acknowledge responsibility for Elmer’s Death (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 49). His response to the accident is indicative of his secretive personality and self-preserving persona.

Directorial Pivot

After recovering from the accident, Browning found work with his pal D.W. Griffith. Griffith had been working on a new project titled, The Mother and the Law. A film that was to follow up his massively successful Birth of a Nation (1915). The Mother and the Law had some of the grandiose sets the world had seen. A film that would go down in history as a budget busting endeavor. Although, not before being renamed to Intolerance.

Browning continued down his path of filmmaking after helping with Intolerance. Although, the accident marked a transition in Browning’s screenplay subject matter. His films began to take on a higher level of macabre and tended to be fueled by sexual frustration or desire. In General, the plots included “recurrent themes of crime, culpability and retribution.” (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 55).

First Feature film, Jim Bludso (1917)

Tod Browning’s first feature film was for Triangle Film Corporation. Jim Bludso, a film following a Civil War veteran that finds his wife has run off with another man. The story is one of a respectful and honorable man, Jim Bludso, being taken advantage of, while a dishonorable man, Ben Merrill selfishly destroys the world around him. Jim Bludso is able to navigate his way through the chaos created by Merrill to a happy ending.

Browning made a few more films for Triangle Film Corporation before moving to Metro Pictures in 1917. His Metro films included: Peggy, the Will O’ the Wisp, The Jury of Fate, The Legion of Death, The Eyes of Mystery, and Revenge.

Universal Pictures & Priscilla Dean

Less than a year later, Browning went to Bluebird Photoplays, a subsidiary of Universal Pictures. A major player at Universal was Irving Thalberg. Thalberg would be a major influence on Browning’s career. It was with Universal that Browning found huge success with his films starring Priscilla Dean. Dean’s roles were typically those of a prostitute that infiltrated high society. These films continued to include the themes synonymous with Browning. Films like: Which Woman?, The Exquisite Thief, The Wicked Darling, The Virgin of Stamboul, Outside the Law, Under Two Flags, and White Tiger.

Browning’s final film for Universal Pictures was White Tiger. A film in which Browning revealed the mechanism behind a contemporary illusion in the magician world. As a former member of the fraternity of magicians, he had thus violated the magicians code by revealing the inter workings of an illusion.

Lon Chaney & The Wicked Darling (1919)

Browning worked with Lon Chaney for the first time on The Wicked Darling, in 1919. A move that was orchestrated by Irving Thalberg. This would mark the beginning of their incredible collaboration period. The Wicked Darling had a positive reception predominantly due to Lon Chaney’s emerging and commanding presence that he had on film as the greatest character actor.

The two of them would work together again a year later on the film Outside the Law. Again, Chaney showed off his character acting abilities by portraying two characters. Chaney and Browning would flourish together creatively. It is clear that their bond had grown due to them both leaving Universal to join MGM with Irving Thalberg.

The Hunchback That Almost Was

Thalberg saw a connection when Browning and Chaney worked together. In 1922 it was announced that Lon Chaney would star in Victor Hugo’s tale The Hunchback of Notre Dame and Tod Browning would be the director. However, a combination of unsuccessful films and a love affair with a teenager pushed Browning out of Universal and, temporarily, out of his marriage to Alice Browning. The teenager, Anna May (or Wong Liu Tsong), got her big break with Browning in his film Drifting. A role that elevated her career. With Browning out at Universal, Wallace Worsley would take over the duty as director for The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923).

MGM Years

Browning made twelve films with MGM between 1925 and 1929, eight of which starred Lon Chaney. This four year stretch marked the height of both of Browning and Chaney’s careers.

The Unholy Three (1925)

The start of their MGM collaboration was The Unholy Three in 1925. A film that was remade as a talkie in 1930, with mostly the same cast. The Unholy Three was based on the novel of the same name by Clarence Aaron “Tod” Robbins. At the time, the story was considered difficult to translate to film. The concept seemed too outlandish to be a drama and would result in a comedy. Browning disagreed and Thalberg was interested in teaming up Browning with Chaney. Something that Thalberg attempted to do with Hunchback of Notre Dame (1923).

Browning drew from his experience in the circus for The Unholy Three. The story follows three circus performers turned criminals. Their inability to trust one another leads to a violent demise. Drawing from his circus and carnival experience was not new for his films. However, his stories over the next seven years would continue to pull from this familiarity in what would culminate in his magnum opus, Freaks.

The Unholy Three was a commercial and critical success. Chaney’s performance and Browning’s direction are both instrumental in the success of the film. Browning’s ability to orchestrate the final scenes with a live chimpanzee as the “gorilla” was interesting. Something that would not fly nowadays, or be necessary. His ability to envision the sequence and bring it to life was innovative for the time.

The Mystic (1925) & Dollar Down (1925)

The next two films were made without Lon Chaney, due to Chaney’s obligations with Victor Sjöström. These two films were not as memorable as The Unholy Three or others that came after. Perhaps it was the missing character actor, Chaney, to bring out the characters. The Mystic seemed to lack the pizzazz of other Browning films. It does still align with Browning’s themes and story lines by following a group of swindling gypsy’s. I was unable to find a copy of Dollar Down. Based on the lack of surviving copies and limited reviews, it seems like it was not a popular film.

The Blackbird (1926)

Browning and Chaney’s next collaboration was The Blackbird. A crime thriller starring Lon Chaney as the two main characters, “The Blackbird” and “The Bishop”. The Blackbird is the leader of a small gang in the Limehouse district in London. The Bishop is a beloved man that uses crutches due to deformities to his legs.

The Road to Mandalay (1926) & London After Midnight (1927)

Neither of Tod Browning’s 1926 film, The Road to Mandalay, or his 1927 film, London After Midnight, survive today. The Road to Mandalay has some surviving footage that has been archived at Warner Bros. London After Midnight, however, only has stills from production.

Both films star Lon Chaney and his cosmetic ingenuity. In The Road to Mandalay, that meant applying collodion to his face to create scarring and staining an eye with egg white. His character was apparently less developed than others and the story as a whole fell short of some of Browning’s other vehicles.

Chaney’s make up work in Browning’s next film, London After Midnight, was significantly more involved. The story follows a murder investigation in which the detective on the case is also the murderer. His murderer alter ego is “The Man in the Beaver Hat”, a vampiric shark-toothed ghoul. Chaney was able to craft this costume by using wire to keep his eyes open, like a monocle, shark teeth dentures, heavy white face makeup, a wig, and beaver hat. Chaney used as many practical effects to his own face throughout his career in order to avoid a full face mask. This allowed him to maintain more facial feature control while acting. A trademark to his make up genius.

The Unknown (1927)

The Unknown (1927) is possibly my favorite Browning film. An armless circus performer, Alonzo, played by Lon Chaney, performs a knife throwing act. Being armless, he instead throws the knives with his feet. The film depicts how he performs all of his daily routine tasks with his feet, i.e. drinking tea, playing guitar, etc… Although, the story heats up when we discover that he is actually a criminal on the run that secretly has arms. Not only that, he has six fingers on his hand, a hard to miss characteristic.

The primary plot focuses on his desire to be with Nanon, played by Joan Crawford, who is his knife throwing partner. She is also the daughter of the circus owner, Antonio, played by Nick de Ruiz. An argument between Alonzo and Antonio leads to Alonzo strangling him to death in front of Nanon. Nanon is only able to see the hands strangling her father, a six fingered hand.

Alonzo discovers that he can never woo Nanon for that would require him to reveal his arms. When he does that he will also reveal that he is her father’s murderer. The only logical next step is to have his arms removed for real. When he returns to the circus as a real armless man, he finds Nanon has fallen in love with someone else. Alonzo then gets trampled to death while trying to sabotage Nanon’s lover’s act.

Chaney does not use a lot of makeup to bring this character to life, however he does wrap his arms up to hide them. Browning also brought on a real life armless man, Paul Desmuke, to be the body double for the leg scenes. The scenes in which the feet are performing acts like knife throwing, playing guitar, and drinking tea. Browning was able to stage the shots so that Chaney’s top half would be in the shot as well as Desmuke’s lower half.

Death of Lon Chaney & Transition to Universal

In 1929, Lon Chaney contracted walking pneumonia while on the set of Thunder. He was soon thereafter diagnosed with lung cancer. Even though he was sick, he embarked on what would become his final film, The Unholy Three, a remake of the 1925 film. Chaney died shortly after the release of his first talking picture, The Unholy Three, on August 27, 1930. He was only 47 years old.

The death of Chaney undoubtedly weighed heavy on Tod Browning. Although, Browning never publicly commented on Chaney’s death (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 146). Skal and Savada note that the relationship between the duo had become turbulent. Chaney stayed at MGM where he made the sound remake of The Unholy Three, originally directed by Browning. Whereas, Browning went to Universal where he was “thrown into the notoriously less structured atmosphere of Universal.” (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 146).

Browning and Chaney’s collaboration brought the best out of both of them in terms of creativity and Chaney’s character acting ability was unmatched. Chaney was integral in bringing their ideas to life. The years that followed for Tod Browning saw some success, i.e. Dracula (1930). Browning also released what would become his magnum opus, Freaks (1932). Although, Browning quickly fell off the map after that. I wonder how the trajectory of Browning’s career would have changed had Chaney survived.

Outside the Law (1930)

Browning’s first film for Universal, the first in a three film contract, was Outside the Law. A remake of of his 1920 film of the same name. The original cast featured Lon Chaney and Priscilla Dean, however the remake starred Edward G. Robinson and Mary Nolan. The film had a moderate response and Browning began to focus on his next project.

Dracula (1931)

The next major film for Tod Browning was the historic film, Dracula. An early horror film in cinema history. Chaney was a top choice for the lead role in Dracula, although that prospect was lost due to his illness and ultimately his death. Instead, Dracula went on to star actor Béla Ferenc Dezső Blaskó, aka Bela Lugosi. Lugosi’s Hungarian lineage and accent fit perfectly considering Dracula was written as Hungarian by Stoker. Skal and Savada allege, that Browning may have preferred Legosi over Chaney anyway. (Skal & Savada, 1995, p. 144).

This was not the first film that Lugosi and Browning worked on together. The pair worked together on Browning’s first talkie, The Thirteenth Chair (1929). A film that did not result in much success. Although, Dracula was a different story. Lugosi portrayed Dracula in the Broadway version, which made him a prime candidate. Lugosi’s performance would go on to define the way Dracula would be portrayed for the following century.

Browning’s version was not the first film adaptation of Dracula. Bram Stoker’s story had been told before, e.g. F.W. Murnau’s Nosferatu. However, unlike Nosferatu, this time the studio held the rights to the story. Browning’s rendition was also adapted from the stage play that was itself adapted by Bram Stoker’s novel.

Lugosi was also surrounded by a strong supporting cast. Dwight Frye as Renfield, the real estate agent turned slave to Dracula. The intensity that he brought to the character highlighted the character’s out of control fanaticism. Professor Van Helsing was played by Edward Van Sloan, who also portrayed Van Helsing on Broadway across Lugosi. His stoic, scientific, and controlled demeanor provided a a counterbalance to the eccentric Renfield.

The production did not proceed without its own drama. The studio watched over Browning’s every move and restricted his ideas during production. Cinematographer, Karl Freund, famous for his work on Metropolis, was also a de facto director during production. Other stress and strain came from Universal’s final edit of the film, that resulted in major cuts and reshoots, as well as the simultaneous development of the Spanish language version. It was not the existence of the Spanish version that caused Browning stress, but the fact that they were less restricted and able to view Browning’s dailies and make their version better. Despite all of that, Dracula was still a box office success.

Browning’s experience during Dracula left a lot to be desired and so he quickly wrapped up his third film obligation, The Iron Man, and parted ways with Universal.

Freaks (1932)

Once his contract was up at Universal, Browning struck a deal with Irving Thalberg to come back to MGM. Skal and Savada note in Dark Carnival, that the industry saw the success of Dracula and the audiences acceptance of the horror genre and wanted to jump on the opportunity. Producers were cautious and unsure of which vehicles would prove to be successful on the screen. Browning knew what material he wanted to develop into a screenplay. He chose Spurs by “Tod” Robbins, the same author of The Unholy Three.

Freaks, Browning’s most notorious film, turned out to be the mark of the end of his career. The ambitious story and use of real circus performers made this film stand out among its contemporaries. A tale about the origin story of a certain side show attraction. How the beautiful trapeze artist, Cleopatra (Olga Baclanova) became a mangled shadow of her former self. A display of prejudice and intolerance towards those that are different.

Tod Browning is known for his propensity for horror films and stories that take place in the circus life. Freaks turns this idea on its head a bit. The shock factor in the film is not with gore or monsters as villains. In this case, the villains are the beautiful Cleopatra and the strong Hercules (Henry Victor), and the heroes are “The Freaks”.

The treatment towards the “Freaks” is mixed throughout the film. Characters are shown to either be supportive of them or trying to demean them and make their lives harder. This is perfectly encapsulated early on by a grounds keeper informing the landowner of trespassers. The groundskeeper describing horrifying creatures that should have been smothered at birth and demanding they be removed from the premises. Once the landowner sees them and talks to them he grants them permission to stay.

When Hans falls in love with Cleopatra, he chooses to discard his fiancee, Frieda. At first Cleopatra only seduces him out of vanity and at the expense of Frieda. Cleopatra’s real love interest is Hercules. Once she discovers that Hans is to inherit a fortune, she formulates a plan with Hercules to marry Hans, poison him, and take him for all he is worth.

The kindhearted “freaks” are cautious about who they bring into their circle. When it appears that Hans is in love and that Cleopatra has accepted him, and in turn them, they welcome her to the circle. The welcoming ceremony at the wedding reception results in Cleopatra exclaiming her hatred for them.

Hans and his companions discover Cleopatra’s plan and devise one of their own. Before Cleopatra is able to poison Hans to death, they gang up and plot to protect themselves as the circus convoy makes its way to the next stop. The climax of the film, set at night and in the rain, reveals the end of the beautiful Cleopatra and strong man, Hercules. Cleopatra and Hercules get hunted down in the rain and mud by the armed and empowered gang. Resulting in Hercules’ castration and Cleopatra’s disfigurement, as well as, a gripping cinematic sequence that marks the apex of Browning’s talent as a visionary.

Response to Freaks

Freaks was not well received by Audiences. Both audiences and studios were not ready for a film like Freaks. The outrage and response to the film shows that many missed the point entirely. The attempt to humanize the characters and show their plight was met with disgust. Freaks was banned in many areas and pulled from theaters within weeks. Browning was confused as to why the film was so poorly received and that his reputation was being tarnished. He didn’t see Freaks as anything but another example of him pushing the envelope of film and the same subject matter he had used for years.

Aftermath of Freaks and Fast Workers

Either way, his career to a sharp turn. It took some time before he was given another opportunity to direct. Thalberg gave Browning some scenarios to work on, but it would take almost a whole year before Browning would release another film. Fast Workers was the first film Browning was able to direct after Freaks and his last pre-code film. A film following two construction workers, John Gilbert and Robert Armstrong, as they fight over a shared lover, Mae Clarke. The film was a box office flop and further hindered Browning’s recovery from Freaks.

Mark of the Vampire (1935)

Browning continued to struggle finding work with MGM. He had moved to Malibu with is wife, Alice Browning. While enjoying domestic life, Browning still yearned for opportunities to make films. He brought up the idea of blending Dracula and London After Midnight. An idea that MGM was willing to entertain if he took a 50% pay cut. That film would become Mark of the Vampire.

Mark of the Vampire allowed Browning to work again and with the the Dracula star, Bela Lugosi, as well as Lionel Barrymore. Another costar was Carrol Borland, who worked with Legosi on the stage.

Mark of the Vampire was a remake of Browning’s lost 1927 Lon Chaney film, London After Midnight. The two lead roles in London After Midnight were played by Lon Chaney. His death in 1930 ruled him out in the reboot. Instead, the roles were recast with Bela Lugosi as the “vampire” and Lionel Barrymore as Professor Zelen,the hypnotist. London After Midnight has not survived, but saw high praise at the time.

The twist of Mark of the Vampire is the same as the ending in London After Midnight. The twist was to reveal that the vampires were in fact actors working to help reveal the true killer. However, London After Midnight was released before Browning’s 1931 film, Dracula. A fresh version of the story was amplified by the presence of Bela Lugosi as the vampire. With Dracula fresh in the mind of his audience, Browning was likely able to sell the authenticity of the vampire portrayal.

Carroll Borland reportedly was disappointed with the ending. She thought that the vampires should be real and not revealed to be actors. Apparently, Browning kept the ending a secret so that the actors would have more focused performances. It is surprising that the actors would not be familiar or aware of London After Midnight, a film that was released only 8 years earlier.

Mark of the Vampire apparently was received positively. It was not a major success at the box office, but it was not a flop either. It allowed Browning to keep working with MGM and they gave him another chance at a film. The next one would be another blend of previous story lines. This time a blend from his first hit, The Unholy Three, and elements of Dracula.

The Devil-Doll (1936)

Perfection isn’t wrong. Marcel from The Devil-Doll (1936)

The story was adapted from Abraham Merritt’s 1932 novel, Burn Witch Burn!. The screenplay was adapted by Tod browning, Erich von Stroheim, Guy Endore, and Garrett Fort. The Devil-Doll follows two jail breakers, Paul Lavond (Lionel Barrymore) and Marcel (Henry B. Walthall). Lavond is a banker that has spent 17 years in prison for crimes he did not commit. He seeks revenge from those that framed him as well as reconnecting with his daughter. Marcel is a mad scientist desperate to get back to his work. That work is developing a poison that paralyzes living creatures and shrinks them down to the size of a doll. They can then be controlled telepathically. The intent is to shrink people down as a solution to overpopulation and food shortages. Lavond, however, desires to use the technology as a tool for revenge.

As usual, Tod Browning brings to life some odd characters in an odd story. The concept of having real life dolls come to life is especially cool for the time. The way that Browning was able to seamlessly blend the small versions of the characters into the full size world was astonishing. It surprised me the same way that innovative predecessors surprised me. Each decade see’s incredible advancements in in special effects. In the first decade of the 1900’s there was A Trip to the Moon (1902), the following decade had, L’Inferno (1911). The next decade had Thief of Bagdad (1924).

The Devil-Doll’s contribution to the special effect story, was the smooth way that the miniature versions of people interacted with their surroundings. A specific example is when Lachna, played by Grace Ford, is awakened in the house of one of Lavond’s former associates. She creeps out from the arms of a child and climbs down the mattress and bed frame. She makes her way through the child’s room full of toys and climbs up the dresser of the former associate. The way that double exposures are combined with enlarged sets is astonishing.

Even though the story is adapted and not originated by Browning, it has a remarkable similarity to some of his prior projects. The overall peculiarity of the films story is in line with Browning’s style. It has elements reminiscent of the The Unholy Three, the lead dresses up as an old lady as a disguise, following a fugitive on the run, and a violent ending. Again, I wonder how this film would have been received if Chaney had been able to play the lead.

With that said, Lionel Barrymore does an excellent job in this film. He plays the vindictive fugitive and doting grandmother figure well. Effortlessly swapping in between them at a glance. The way that the film ends is also well executed by Barrymore. One would expect Lavond to reveal all to his daughter, but instead he steps aside to let his daughter move on. Leaving a positive emotion as the last imprint of her memory of him. A feeling that is only earned in the final moments of the film.

Miracles for Sale (1939)

Browning’s final film was Miracles for Sale, a comedic sleuth mystery. The film follows a retired and talented magician named Mike Morgan, played by Robert Young. In retirement, he builds illusions for other magicians as well as unmask mystics and psychics attempting to fake supernatural powers.

A run in with Judy Barclay, played by Florence Rice, entangles him in murder mystery surrounding magicians and demonologists. Mike plays the role of consultant for the New York Police Detectives as they try to make sense of the mysterious deaths. More and more unusual activities take place as the investigation progresses. Thus, opening up the possibility of real supernatural powers to be at play. Logic, however, wins out in the end.

The overall vibe of the film is different than Browning’s previous films. It feels more like a studio production and less like a brain child project from his heyday in the 1920’s. The supernatural aspects of the film have Browning’s touch, however the comedic banter between the father and son, the POV being from the authorities instead of the criminals, and the murder mystery plot as a whole, all create a film unlike Browning’s other projects. Miracles for Sale also reminds me a lot of other 1930’s comedy mysteries, like The Thin Man, the sequels to The Thin Man, the Torchy films, and others.

Post Film Life

The final three films of Browning’s career were modest at the box office and after the death of Irving Thalberg in 1936, Browning had few allies at MGM. Ultimately, MGM decided to not engage Browning in future work, ending his film career for good.

Browning permanently moved to his Malibu house with wife Alice. About 5 years later, Alice would die from pneumonia and Tod would become a recluse. He spent the next 20 years in isolation in his Malibu home, dying on October 6, 1962.


Skal, David J., and Elias Savada. Dark Carnival: The Secret World of Tod Browning Hollywood’s Master of the Macabre. Anchor Books, 1995.

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